The Tolhouse in Great Yarmouth, whilst not a castle, is a fortified townhouse. Built in 1150, it was altered in 1250. The borough hired the building in the 14th Century and purchased outright in 1552.
The building has had several different uses, including as a prison (1261 – 1875), town hall (to 1882), police station, court house and toll office. The building was restored in 1883 when a rear wing of the building was demolished. The building was bombed during the Second World War (1939 – 1945).
The building was restored again between 1960 – 1961. The building is constructed of flint with ashlar dressing.
Today, the Tolhouse is a museum and is open to the public. Check opening times.
Fotheringhay Castle in the Northamptonshire village of Fotheringhay is large motte and Bailey castle thought to have been built on the orders of Simon de Senlis, 1st Earl of Northampton, 2nd Earl of Huntingdon in around 1100.
Simon de Senlis died in 1113, leaving his wife Maud free to marry. Henry I (1100-1035), arranged for Maud to marry Prince David of Scotland. As part of this marriage, Prince David, who would later become King David I of Scotland (1124 – 1153), gained control of Fotheringhay Castle as well as other estates in Huntingdonshire.
The ownership of the castle descended through the Scottish royal family until the 12th Century when it was confiscated by King John 1199 – 1216) from Prince David of Scotland, not to be confused with David I.
In 1215, the castle was returned to the control of the Scottish royal family. Shortly after this David of Scotland rebelled against the king, the castle was confiscated by the king. William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke was granted the castle.
In 1218, William Marshal was ordered to return the castle to the control of Prince David. David would go on to die in 1219, and by this time, the castle at Fotheringhay hadn’t been returned to his control.
Alexander II, King of Scotland had a claim to the castle through his family ties with the now deceased Prince David. Henry III’s (1216 – 1272) sister, Joan, was now to marry the king of Scots, and the castle would form part of the dowry for this. In December 1219, Marshal finally handed control of the castle to Henry III.
William II de Forz, 3rd Earl of Albemarle rebelled against the king in 1220. In January 1221, his forces attacked and seized Fotheringhay Castle. Henry III’s forces would go on to seize the castle back for the crown.
Later in 1221, Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent was given custody of the castle on his marriage to king of Scotland’s sister. During the Second Barons War (1264 – 1267), Fotheringhay Castle was taken and held by Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derbyshire between 1264 -1265. Edward II (1307 – 1327), granted the castle to John of Brittany, Earl of Richmond. John would go on to die in 1334. On his death, his grand daughter, Mary de St Pol, the widowed Countess of Pembroke would go on to inherit the castle.
Mary de St Pol died in 1377. King Edward III (1327 – 1377) gave her property to his son, Edmund Langley. In 1385 he was made Duke of York, with Fotheringhay Castle becoming his principal seat or caput. Around this time a great deal of money was spent in improving the castle.
Edmund Langley died in 1402. Upon his death his estates, including Fotheringhay Castle, passed to his son Edward of Norwich, his eldest son. Edward would go on to be killed at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. Edward didn’t have any children, so his estates passed to his nephew, Richard of York.
Richard of York became 3rd Duke of York, a powerful position and he was married to Cecily Neville of the House of Neville. a powerful family from the north of England. Richard fathered two future kings: Edward IV (1461 – 1470, 1471 – 1483) and Richard III (1483 – 1485). Richard III was also born at Fotheringhay Castle.
In March 1454, Richard of York was made ‘protector and defender of the realm’ whilst Henry VI (1422 -1461, 1470 – 1471) was mentally ill. He held this position until February 1455.
During the Wars of the Roses (1455 – 1485), Richard of York was killed at the Battle of Wakefield in 1460. The castle remained a favourite residence to the family, with Cecily nee Neville entertaining guests there including Elizabeth Woodville, Edward IV’s queen.
Mary, Queen of Scots spent her final days at Fotheringhay, having been imprisoned at other castles for the last 18 years of her life. Mary was tried and convicted of treason at the castle. Mary was beheaded at the castle on 8th February 1587.
By the end of the reign of Elizabeth I (1558 – 1603), the castle was in was in a state of disrepair. By 1635, it was in a ruinous state and was demolished soon afterwards.
Today, the castle’s earthwork and masonry remains are on private land but can be seen from a public footpath that runs nearby during reasonable daylight hours.
Upnor Castle is an artillery fort located in the village of Upnor in Kent. Constructed between 1559 – 1567, it was constructed to a design by Sir Richard Lee to defend the Royal Navy dockyard at Chatham and ships anchored in the Medway. The castle was constructed on the orders of Elizabeth I (1558 – 1603) and consisted of a main block, water bastion and river frontage.
In 1599 – 1601, the castle was remodelled. Two riverside towers were rebuilt, a gatehouse, moat and curtain wall were added. The castle is constructed of ragstone faced with course ashlar blocks. Some red bricks were also used.
In June 1667, a Dutch squadron under the command of Michiel de Ruyter mounted a raid on the Medway, capturing two ships and burning others at anchor at Chatham. This defeat, was one of the worst in Royal Navy history and showed how inadequate the Medway defences were, including Upnor Castle. Though it should be noted that Upnor Castle had been neglected of investment, but acquitted itself better than some of the other Medway defences.
After the Dutch attack, the castle was retired from service as new and more advanced forts were built to protect the dockyard. Instead the castle was was used as a store and magazine. Works to the castle to make it fit for this purpose were undertaken, including the main building of the castle which had to be heightened and its floors reinforced.
In 1827, the castle ceased being used as a store and magazine, instead it was used as a ordnance laboratory. Later, in 1891, the castle came under the control of the Admiralty, ending the relationship where the Admiralty had managed the site and the War Office had funded it.
After the First World War (1914 – 1918), the castle became a Royal Naval armaments depot. During this time, weapons and explosives were tested at the castle. From the 1920s onward, the castle was a museum, though during the Second World War (1939 – 1945) the castle was still in use as part of the Magazine Establishment, with the castle being bombed in 1941.
After the war in 1945, the castle was opened to the public as a departmental museum by the Admiralty. The castle was restored at this time.
Today, the castle is managed by Medway Council and is open to the public.
Longthorpe Tower is located in the Longthorpe suburb of Peterborough. Built around 1290 – 1300, the tower was added to a house already in existence on the orders of Robert Thorpe. The buildings consisted of the tower, the cross-wing which was two storeys tall, the great hall, and the service rooms and kitchen.
Built for symbolic and as well for defensive purposes, the tower has three floors, each with their own use. The tower is accessed by a set of wooden stairs and a doorway that would have originally been a window on the first floor. With the original entrance to the tower being blocked up. This first floor also contains one of the finest sets of medieval wall paintings in northern Europe.
Today, the tower is managed by English Heritage, check for opening times.